Roasted Beets


This is my new favorite side dish. The only problem is making sure I don’t eat them all before getting it to the table.

4 large beets, peeled and sliced
2 tablespoons olive oil
1 teaspoon kosher salt
1 tablespoon Balsamic vinegar

Preheat oven to 450 degrees. Toss beets with olive oil and salt. Cover and cook for 45 minutes. Remove cover, stir and cook an additional ½ hour. Remove from oven and immediately stir in Balsamic vinegar. Serve at room temperature.

Almond Biscotti

1 (8 ounce) container almond paste
1 stick (1/2 cup) cold margarine
1-3/4 cup flour
½ cup sugar
1 teaspoon baking powder
1 cup slivered almonds
4 egg whites
½ teaspoon vanilla

Preheat oven to 350 degrees. Grate almond paste and margarine in a food processor.

Add flour, sugar and baking powder and mix. Add slivered almonds, egg whites and vanilla and process until dough forms. Roll into log and place on an ungreased cookie sheet. Bake for 35 minutes. Cut into slices and return to oven for 10 minutes more.

Menus for Succot

It’s hard to believe that we are all planning menus again. Although, I am also a little overwhelmed by the amount of time required in the kitchen this Yom Tov, I am also very excited about Succos. I love Succos and Succos food, warm soups and comfort desserts, lots of company, and special time with the kids. Here are a few of the menus I am planning. We love hearing from you and especially love hearing your feedback and comments. Good Yom Tov and Bon Appétit!

Great Night Menu
Spiced Pumpkin Soup
Succulent Ribs
Roasted Garlic Mashed Potatoes
Sesame Green Beans
Mississippi Mud Cake

Dairy Menu
French Onion Soup
Caramelized Onion and Mushroom Pizza
Caesar Salad
Honey Glazed Salmon

White Hot chocolate

Baked Apples

California (it’s still hot here)
Black Bean Cakes with Gazpacho
Glazed Corned Beef
Grilled Vidalia Onion Salad
Slimmed Down Corn Pudding
Chocolate Cookies and Cream Cake

Another Meat Menu
Tortilla Soup
Grandma Tilly’s Brisket
Indian Eggplant
Red and Yellow Beets with lemon tarragon vinaigrette
Banana Betty in Individual Ramekins

Slimmed Down Corn Pudding

Revised to slim down by my friend Andrea

2 tablespoons margarine
1/2 cup sugar
1/2 cup egg substitute
1 egg
1/2 cup Flour
1 teaspoon baking powder

1 cup Almond or soy Milk
1 tablespoon vanilla extract
2 cans cream style corn
1/2-1 Can of corn kernals, drained

Cream together margarine and sugar. Mix in egg, flour, baking powder until smooth. Add to the rest of the ingredients and pour into a baking pan, sprayed with cooking spray. Cook in a 350 degree oven for 1 hour and 15 minutes, uncovered until deep golden brown and set.

Banana Betty in Individual Ramekins

(Makes about 8 – 10)

1½ cups coarsely ground gingersnap cookies or other cookie crumbs (about 6 ounces)
9 tablespoons sugar
3 tablespoons unsalted margarine, melted
2 cups pareve whipping cream
6 large egg yolks
1 tablespoon dark rum (optional but don’t be scared to use it)
1 teaspoon vanilla extract
2 very ripe bananas, peeled, and cut into ¼ thick inch rounds
Pareve whipping cream or pareve ice cream to go with them

Mix ground cookies, 3 tablespoons sugar and margarine in medium bowl to blend.

Bring pareve cream to simmer in saucepan over medium heat. Whisk egg yolks and remaining 6 tablespoons sugar in large bowl to blend. Gradually whisk hot pareve cream into yolks mixture. Return mixture to saucepan and stir over medium low heat until custard thickens slightly and leaves path on back of a spoon, about 4 minutes. Do not boil! Remove from heat and mix in rum and vanilla.

Place 1 tablespoon cookie mixture in bottom of each of 8 ½ cup ramekins or custard cups. Fan 6 banana slices on top. Pour warm custard over bananas (about ¼ cup each). Refrigerate 30 minutes.

Preheat oven to 350 degrees. Top each with 2 more tablespoons cookie mixture. Place desserts in large roasting pan. Pour enough hot water into pan to come halfway up sides of dishes. Bake until custard is just set in center, about 35 minutes. Serve warm with pareve ice cream or pareve whipping cream. (Can be made 1 day ahead.)

Grilled Peach Cobbler with Vanilla Ice Cream from Le Marais Restaurant

from Le Marais Restaurant

Serves 8
12 ripe peaches, halved, pitted
Peanut oil as needed
Salt as needed
½ pound of margarine, melted, divided in ½
1 cup of light brown sugar, divided in ½
2 teaspoons of ground cinnamon, divided in ½
1 cup of granola
Parve vanilla ice cream or peach sorbet

Lightly oil the peach halves, season with salt and then place flesh down on to a hot grill until browned and with good grill marks.
Remove the peaches from the grill and then cut them into quarters and place them into a mixing bowl. Toss them with half of the margarine, brown sugar and cinnamon. Place into a baking dish.
In a separate bowl, toss together the margarine, brown sugar, cinnamon, and granola. Sprinkle the topping over the peaches and then bake in a 375 degree oven for 15 minutes.
Scoop into individual bowls and top with the ice cream or sorbet.

Grilled Ribeye Steak with Chimichurri Sauce and Fingerling Potato Salad

Serves 8(normal humans, 4 carnivorous beasts)
2 36 oz. bone in, ribeye steaks
Salt and black pepper
Peanut oil
For the chimichurri sauce:
6 cloves of garlic or 3 T or roasted garlic puree
1 teaspoon red pepper flakes
3 teaspoons sugar
½ cup of cider vinegar
½ cup of chopped fresh mint
½ cup of chopped fresh flat leaf parsley
½ cup of chopped fresh basil
¾ cup of extra virgin olive oil
For the fingerling potato salad:
4 tablespoons Dijon Mustard
2 tablespoons whole grain mustard
2 tablespoons honey
6 tablespoons of red wine vinegar
1 cup of extra virgin olive oil
Salt and black pepper
4 tablespoons of chopped fresh oregano
30 fingerling potatoes, par boiled in salted water, cooled
1 small red onion, peeled, thinly sliced
1 bunch of watercress

Being that this big, fat ol’ chunk of bovine flesh that has been in the refrigerator for a long time, it is chilled to the bone. Pull them out of the refrigerator and leave them on the counter for about an hour before cooking time and let them come up to room temperature.
For the chimichurri sauce, put all of the ingredients into the blender and then run until it is a well combined yet coarsely textured sauce.
For the potato salad, whisk together both of the mustards, the honey, vinegar, and the oil. Season to taste with salt and pepper.
Slice the potatoes into bite size pieces and then place them into a bowl with the red onion, watercress and the oregano. Toss with the dressing and serve.
This piece of meat is just too thick to be finished on your grill, so have your oven ready at 400 degrees. Season all sides of the meat generously with salt and black pepper.
If at this point your grill is not hot and well seasoned, you just have not been paying attention to a word that I have said for the past hour and you then deserve to have your gorgeous and expensive beef stick to your grill.
Put the meat on the grill and leave it alone for about 5 minutes. Then turn it the 180 degrees for the diamond marking. Don’t play with your meat, this is the most common mistake made by home grillers. Continue this on both sides until you have a nice browned char on both sides.
Put the charred meat onto the oven for about 12 minutes. This should get you that perfect rare to medium rare that this meat is so deserving of. Above medium rare? Hang your head in shame, you have disgraced the steer and made their existence meaningless.
Allow the meat to rest for at least 10 minutes before you cut into it. Present a cutting board with these glorious cuts of beef and you wielding your sharp carving knife like a samurai warrior. Your guests will be thoroughly awed, and isn’t that why we invite guests over in the first place?

Grilled Yellowfin Tuna with Cold Soba Noodles in Peanut Sauce from Le Marais Restaurant

from Le Marais Restaurant

Serves 8 servings
2 ½ lbs of Sushi Grade Yellowfin Tuna, cut into 1” steaks
Oil for grilling
Salt and black pepper
1 ½ cups of peanut butter
½ cup of coconut milk
3 tablespoons water
3 tablespoons fresh lime juice
3 tablespoons soy sauce
1 tablespoon hot sauce or 1 tablespoon of red pepper flakes
3 cloves grated fresh garlic
1 ½ tablespoons grated fresh ginger
½ cup of rough chopped cilantro
2 packages of soba noodles
¼ cup of snow peas, julienned
¼ cup of peeled carrots, julienned
¼ cup of celery, julienned
¼ cup of scallions, chopped
½ cup of chopped cilantro or basil
½ cup of cherry tomatoes cut in half
White sesame seeds for garnishing

Not only can this be prepared in advance, I encourage it. Cook the noodles as per the manufacturer’s instructions. When they are cooked, drain them and then shock them with cold water. You need to stop the cooking process by removing all of the heat. Place the noodles in a bowl and put them on the side.
For the sauce, place into a large bowl the peanut butter, coconut milk, water, lime juice, soy sauce, hot sauce, garlic and ginger. Whisk together until the sauce forms and is smooth. Add the cilantro.
Into the noodles, add all of the cut vegetables and then enough sauce to generously coat them. Reserve any extra sauce to be used as a sauce for the tuna.
Place into the refrigerator and allow to chill while preparing the tuna.
Have your grill well seasoned and hot before placing the tuna on to the grill.
Lightly oil the fish on both sides and then season with the salt and pepper.
Place the fish on to your grill and let it sit for about 1 to 1 ½ minutes. Then rotate the fish 180 degrees and let it sit for another minute. This will create the desired diamond pattern. Flip over and repeat the process. The fish should be on the grill no longer than 5-6 minutes maximum. If you like your tuna well done, than turn around and leave my class now for I am not very happy with you and you shouldn’t be eating tuna anyway.
Put the tuna on to a cutting board and slice it. Serve the warn tuna with the chilled noodle salad. Drizzle the remaining sauce over the tuna.

Charred Vidalia Onion Salad from Le Marais Restaurant

from Le Marais Restaurant

Serves 8
6 Vidalia onions, peeled and sliced into ½ inch slices
2 cups of mixed colored cherry tomatoes, sliced in half
Salt and black pepper
¾ cups of extra virgin olive oil, plus extra for grilling
¼ of Balsamic vinegar, plus extra for grilling
2 tablespoons of Dijon mustard
1 tablespoon of chopped mint
1 tablespoon of chopped basil
2 cups of arugula leaves

In a mixing bowl, whisk together the Dijon mustard and the vinegar. Slowly drizzle in the olive oil while whisking, this will form an emulsion. Instead of a whisk, a blender will do the job equally as well (just be sure to rinse out the margaritas). Season with the salt and pepper and place on the side for later use.
Season the onion slices with salt and black pepper. Drizzle the slices liberally with olive oil and balsamic vinegar.
Onto your hot and seasoned grill, place the onions in a single layer on the grill. The onions should begin to caramelize and be ready for flipping in about 3 minutes. Don’t fiddle with the onions, let them be. Once they have caramelized, use a spatula and flip them over. Grill for another 3-4 minutes. They should be well caramelized on both sides and softened. Put the cooked onions aside, and repeat the process until they are all grilled.
While still warm from the grill, toss the onions with the herbs, arugula and the dressing. Serve immediately.

Spiced Pumpkin Soup

2 tablespoon olive oil
1 onion, chopped
1 garlic clove, chopped
1 tablespoon chopped fresh ginger
1 small red chile, seeded and finely chopped
2 tablespoon chopped fresh cilantro
1 bay leaf
1 (28 ounce) can pumpkin or a 2 pound fresh pumpkin, peeled, seeded and diced
2 ½ cups vegetable stock

Heat the oil in a pan over medium heat. Add the onion and garlic and cook, stirring, for about 4 minutes, until slightly softened. Add the ginger, chile, cilantro, bay leaf, and pumpkin and cook for another 3 minutes.

Pour in the stock and bring to a boil. Using a slotted spoon, skim any foam from the surface. If using fresh pumpkin, reduce the heat to a simmer, stirring occasionally, and simmer for about 25 minutes, or until the pumpkin is tender. For canned pumpkin, just simmer for 15 minutes. Remove from the heat and take out the bay leaf, and let cool a little.

Transfer the soup into a food processor or with an immersion blender, process until smooth. Return the mixture to the pan and season to taste with salt and pepper. Reheat gently, stirring. Remove from the heat and pour into warmed soup bowls. Garnish each one with a swirl of pareve cream or pareve tofutti sour cream.

Italian Tomato, Bean and Bread Soup

3 tablespoons olive oil
2 medium red onions, coarsely chopped
3 carrots, sliced
3 celery stalks, chopped
3 garlic cloves, chopped
1 tablespoon fresh thyme
1 14 ounce canned cannellini beans, or other small white bean, drained and rinsed
1 14-ounce can chopped tomatoes
2 ½ cups vegetable stock or pareve chicken stock
2 tablespoons fresh Italian parsley
1 pound Tuscan kale or Savoy cabbage, trimmed, washed, and sliced
1 small day old ciabatta loaf, challah bread, or baguette, torn into small pieces
Salt and pepper
Extra virgin olive oil, to serve

Heat the oil in a large saucepan and cook the onions, carrots and celery for 10 -1 5 minutes, stirring frequently. Add the garlic, thyme and salt and pepper to taste. Continue to cook for an additional 1 -2 minutes, until the vegetables are golden and caramelized.

Add the beans to the pan and pour in the tomatoes. Add enough of the stock to cover the vegetables. Bring to a boil and simmer for 20 minutes. Add the parsley and Tuscan kale and cook for an additional 5 minutes.

Stir in the bread and add a little more stock, if needed. The soup should be thick.

Taste and adjust the seasoning. Ladle into warmed serving bowls and serve hot, drizzled with extra virgin olive oil.

Zucchini Soup

From our friend Yael
½ cup onion, chopped (1 medium)
2 tablespoons olive oil
6 cups chicken stock (real or pareve)
6 zucchinis, chopped in chunks
½ teaspoon dill
1 ½ teaspoon red wine vinegar
1 tablespoon corn starch dissolved in 1 tablespoon of water
1 tablespoon sugar
1 large potato, peeled and chopped

Heat oil in large sauté pan. Add onions, zucchinis, and potato and sauté until soft. Add other ingredients and simmer for 30 minutes. When cool, use an immersion blender or a food processor to blend until smooth. Doubles and freezes well.

Floral Globe – Perfect for Succah

by Creative Jewish Mom

Love these? Me too! I'm sure someone else in the world has come up with the same thing, but I was not looking at their idea when I made these. They're another fun result of sitting down at the dining room table with paper circles! And the good news is you really don't need any special supplies! As I mentioned with yesterday's paper ornaments, don't be afraid to try these in contrasting neutral colors for a more sophisticated look. They could be great wedding decorations too!

You'll Need:
- colored paper
- a soup bowl to trace
- a glue stick
- a hot glue gun
- fishing line

read complete instructions here

Baked Apples

1/4 cup dried cherries
1/4 cup brown sugar
1/4 cup chopped pecans
1/4 teaspoon ground cinnamon
Pinch ground nutmeg
6 Gala apples, rinsed
1/2 cup apple cider
3 tablespoons margarine, cut into pats
1/2 cup maple syrup

In a large bowl, mix together cherries, sugar, pecans, cinnamon and nutmeg. Put aside.

With a melon scooper, core apples to hollow out the middle. Do not go all the way through. Fill each apple core with dry cherry mixture.

Pour apple cider into casserole dish and place apples right side up. Place a pat of margarine on apple hole filled with mixture. Drizzle maple syrup on top of all the apples. Bake for 50 minutes.

Yom Kippur: Before and After the Fast

Although we don’t have to cook for Shabbos this year, we still need hearty meals before and after the fast. When we were first married and living in the Old City in Jerusalem, I made an elaborate dairy meal before the fast. Then, one of my husband’s rebbeim told him that since it was a seudas mitzvah, we should be eating meat. I ran to the markolet, grabbed a frozen chicken (if you have lived or live in Israel you know the ones I mean!) and spent Erev Yom Tov desperately defrosting and cooking it. I won’t make that mistake again. Our family “tradition” is have Oven-Fried Chicken, Mashed Potatoes and another mild vegetable. Watermelon is our dessert of choice – juice and refreshing without the thirst-inducing danger of sugary treats.

Oven-Fried Chicken
Mashed Potatoes

After most fasts I made a pareve minestrone soup to which my kids love to add grated cheese. But after Yom Kippur, you need something more. It hasn’t just been a physical effort but a tremendous spiritual one as well and our bodies need rejuvenation. Try this hearty soup to replenish your energy.

Rich Mushroom Barley Soup with Flanken

Oven-Fried Chicken

4 eggs, beaten
4 cups panko
1 cup flour
1 teaspoon granulated garlic
1 teaspoon cayenne
2 chickens, cut in 1/8th’s
¾ to 1 cup canola oil

Preheat the oven to 450 degrees. Place rimmed nonstick baking sheet on lower rack of oven. Place the eggs in one bowl, the panko in one bowl, and the flour mixed with garlic and cayenne in a third bowl. Dredge chicken in flour, then egg and then panko. Pour the oil onto the baking sheet and roll the chicken pieces in it. Bake for 30 to 45 minutes. Drain on paper towels.

Three Layer Brownies

1 cup quick-cooking oats
¾ cup flour
½ cup brown sugar
¼ teaspoon baking soda
½ cup margarine, melted
1 egg
¾ cup sugar
2/3 cup flour
¼ cup nondairy creamer
¼ cup margarine, melted
1 ounce unsweetened chocolate, melted
1 teaspoon vanilla
¼ teaspoon baking powder
½ cup chopped walnuts (leave out on Rosh Hashannah)
1 ounce unsweetened chocolate
2 tablespoons margarine
1-1/2 cups powdered sugar
½ teaspoon vanilla
1 - 2 tablespoons hot water

Preheat oven to 350 degrees. Stir together the oats, ¾ cup flour, brown sugar and baking soda. Mix in the ½ cup melted margarine. Pat into bottom of 9 x 9-inch square pan. Bake for 10 minutes. In the meantime, beat together the egg, sugar, 23 cup flour, nondairy creamer, 1 ounce melted chocolate, 1 teaspoon vanilla and the baking powder until smooth. Fold in walnuts and spread over baked layer in pan. Bake for an additional 25 minutes. Cool on wire rack. For top, microwave together the 1 ounce chocolate and the 2 tablespoons margarine. Stir until smooth; then stir in powdered sugar and vanilla. Stir in enough hot water to enable pouring. Spread over brownies. Cool completely on wire rack.

Rich Mushroom Barley Soup with Flanken

4 tablespoons olive oil
1-1/2 pounds assorted mushrooms, wild and regular (it will work with just regular if you like)
1 onion, chopped
4 stalks celery, sliced
4 teaspoons minced garlic
3 to 4 pounds flanken (short ribs)
4 quarts water
3 tablespoons beef broth powder
1 red pepper, chopped
2 parsnips, chopped
4 carrots, sliced
1-3/4 cup barley
1 (15 oz) canned crushed tomatoes

In a large stock pot, heat oil over medium heat. Add mushrooms and onions and sauté for about 15 minutes. Add celery and garlic and continue to sauté a few minutes longer. Brown short ribs and then add remaining ingredients. Bring to a boil; then reduce heat to simmer. Cover and let simmer for 1-1/2 to 2 hours.

Mixed Berry (or apple) Turnovers

2 sheets puff pastry

1-1/2 cups fresh blueberries
1-1/2 cups fresh strawberries
(3 cups diced apples may be substituted for all the berries)
3/4 cups sugar
2 teaspoons cornstarch
1 teaspoon ground cinnamon
1 teaspoon ground ginger
1 teaspoon allspice
Juice of 1 lemon
2 tablespoons unsalted margarine
½ teaspoon almond extract
1 egg
1 tablespoon water

Cinnamon whipped cream:
1 ½ cup pareve whipping cream
1 teaspoon cinnamon
1 teaspoon vanilla extract

To prepare the filling, put all the ingredients into a medium bowl and mix well.

Roll out the puff pastry dough on a large, well floured work surface into one 40-inch square or two 20-inch squares. Using a sharp knife cut out eight 4 or 5 inch squares. In a small bowl, make an egg wash by whisking together the egg and water.

To assemble: place about 1/3 cup of the filling in the middle of a square of dough. Fold one corner over to meet the other corner, forming a triangle. Brush the inside edge of the dough with the egg wash. Using your fingertips, crimp the edges well to seal. Brush the top of the turnover with egg wash and place ¼ inch apart on a baking sheet. Repeat with the remaining dough squares and filling. Place the turnovers in the oven and bake until golden brown, about 20 minutes. Remove from the oven and set aside to cool slightly. Serve with cinnamon whipped cream.

Whipping cream:
Whip the cold pareve cream until soft peaks form. Add the cinnamon and vanilla extract and beat until the cream is firm and fluffy.

Sweet Apple Tea

6 cups water
6 sweet apple tea bags
1-1/3 cups vanilla simple syrup, recipe follows
1 small apple, thinly sliced
1/2 lemon, thinly sliced

In a medium saucepan, bring the water to a boil over high heat. Remove the pan from the heat and stir in the tea bags. Allow the liquid to cool to room temperature, about 1 hour. Remove the tea bags and discard. Add the Vanilla Simple Syrup and stir. Pour the mixture into a glass pitcher. Add the apple and lemon slices and refrigerate for 1 hour.

Pour the tea into ice-filled glasses and serve.

Vanilla Simple Syrup
1 cup granulated sugar
1 cup water
1 vanilla bean, cut in 1/2 lengthwise and seeds removed

In a small saucepan over medium heat, combine the sugar, water, vanilla bean, and vanilla bean seeds. Bring to a boil, reduce heat, and simmer for 5 minutes, stirring occasionally, until the sugar has dissolved. Remove the pan from the heat and allow the syrup to cool, about 20 minutes. Strain before using.

Yield: 1 1/3cups

Glazed Corn Beef

3 pounds corned beef
1 cup dark marmalade, like orange or raspberry
4 tablespoons prepared Dijon mustard
4 tablespoons brown sugar

Placed corned beef in a large pot and cover with boiling water. Bring to a boil, lower heat, cover partially and simmer as slowly as possible for about 3 hours, or until very tender when tested with a fork.
Preheat oven to 350°F.
Mix marmalade, mustard and sugar together in a small bowl.
When meat is done, remove from pot and drain. Place meat on an ovenproof serving dish and pour marmalade mixture over it, coating thoroughly.
Bake corned beef for 30 minutes, or until glaze is crisp and brown. Serve hot or at room temperature.

Pomegranates: Tantalize Your Taste Buds with this Heart-Healthy New Year Fruit

By Simone Stromer, MD, CHC [AADP]

I was lucky enough to be in Israel recently and to visit a beautiful nature reserve where several of the 7 species were growing. The pomegranates with their unusual and exotic red bulb-like appearance caught my attention because they are truly magnificent looking. Next week, many of us will be eating this amazing fruit at our Rosh Hashanah tables; however, year-round in the United States, you can’t walk into a regular store without being confronted with bottles and containers in different shapes and sizes filled with various concoctions of pomegranate juice. Whilst it can be tempting to buy these products, especially on a hot day, you might as well hold off for the real deal—natural, in-season, and fresh pomegranates.

Because of its numerous health benefits, pomegranate juice is one of the most heart-healthy fruit juices. Pomegranate juice is an excellent source of vitamin C. In addition, pomegranate juice is rich in polyphenols, a type of antioxidant found in various other foods including blueberries, cranberries, and other fruits and vegetables. Some studies in humans have shown that pomegranate juice has significant antioxidant, antihypertensive, and anti-inflammatory effects. The role of oxidative stress and inflammation in human health and disease, and the protective effects of dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds is the subject of ongoing research. In the meantime, including some pomegranate juice in your diet from time to time is highly recommended.

Remember that you can drink the juice or eat the seeds of pomegranates to benefit from its nutrients. Packed inside each pomegranate are hundreds of bright red seeds, which are juicy, sweet, tart, crunchy, and full of fiber. It is easy to split the hard fruit open, scoop out the red seeds and then use them as sprinkling on your vegetables, salads, soups, or meat dishes. My personal favorite way to enjoy the seeds is to add them to Greek yogurt with a dash of raw honey. How’s that for a power-packed New Year breakfast!

Simone Stromer, MD, CHC [AADP]
Free one hour initial health and nutrition consultation for readers

Rosh Hashanah Salad

For Salad
Mesclun Greens
Pomegranate seeds
1 red apple, sliced thin
2 scallions, chopped
Handful of craisins
Toasted pumpkin seeds

¼ cup mayonnaise
¼ cup maple syrup
3 tablespoons champagne
2 tablespoons sugar
½ cup oil
Put all ingredients into a container. Shake vigorously and refrigerate until ready to use.

Toss all ingredients. Add dressing and serve.